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The Praise of the Lord’s Goodness,
and to the
Memory of Dear Eliza Cuningham.

Published for the Benefit of a Charitable Institution.
Jesus amor meus est, si rideat, omnia rident.
[Jesus is my love, if he smiles, everything smiles.]
O Death, where is thy sting?      1 Corinthians 15:55
(First Printed in 1785)


When the following narrative was drawn up, the writer was aware that his feelings rendered him incompetent to judge how much of a relation, every part of which was interesting to himself, might be fit to offer to the public. Many little circumstances which the indulgence of a friend could bear with, might, to strangers, appear trivial and impertinent. He therefore wrote only for his friends; and printed no more copies than he thought would be sufficient to distribute within the circle of his personal acquaintance. But, as the paper has been much enquired after, and many of his friends have expressed their wish that it might be more extensively circulated, he has, at length, yielded to their judgement. [2]
It is to be lamented, that in this enlightened age, so signalized by the prevalence of a spirit of investigation, religion should, by many, be thought the only subject unworthy of a serious enquiry; and that, while in every branch of science they studiously endeavour to trace every fact to its proper and adequate cause, and cautious of admitting any theory which cannot stand the test of experiment, they treat the use of the term experimental, when applied to religion, with contempt. Yet there are many things connected with this subject, in which, whether we are willing or unwilling, we are, and must be, nearly[closely] interested. Death, for instance, is inevitable. And if there be an hereafter (and it is impossible to prove that there is not), the consequences of death must be important. Many persons die, as they live, thoughtless and careless what consequences may await them.

Others, whose characters and conduct do not appear to have been worse than those of the former, cannot die so. They have dark and painful forebodings, and leave this world with reluctance and terror. And there are others, who, though conscious that they are sinners, and sure that they are about to enter upon an unchangeable and endless state of existence, possess peace, composure, and joy. These declare that they own this happy state of mind to their dependence upon Jesus the Saviour, on whose blood and mediation they have built their hopes. And who can possibly disprove their words? Such an instance is now in the reader's hands. The fact is indubitable. A child, under the age of fifteen, did thus rejoice in the midst of pains and agonies, to the admiration of all who beheld her. She was willing to leave all her friends whom she dearly loved, and by whom she was tenderly beloved; for she knew whom she believed, and that when she should be absent from the body, she would be present with the Lord. With this assurance, she triumphed in the prospect of glory, and smiled upon the approach of death.
It may be presumed, that whoever seriously considers this case, will not be able to satisfy himself, by ascribing such remarkable effects, in so young a subject, to the power of habit, example, or system. If he does not account for them upon the principles of the Gospel, he will be unable to assign any proportionable cause. And it is to be feared, that, if he is not affected by a testimony so simple and so striking, neither would he be persuaded though one should rise from the dead.
November 17, 1785.

the praise of the Lord’s Goodness,
and to the
Memory of Dear Eliza Cuningham

Eliza garden

I was walking in the garden, and earnestly engaged in prayer for her,
when a servant came to me and said, ‘She is gone.’

As I write not for the eye of the public, but chiefly to put a testimony of the Lord's goodness into the hands of my dear friends, who have kindly offered us their sympathy and prayers on the late occasion; I do not mean either to restrain the emotions of my heart, or to apologize for them. I shall write simply and freely, as I might speak to a person, to whose intimacy and tenderness I can fully entrust myself, and who, I know, will bear with all my weaknesses.
In May, 1782, my sister Cuningham [3] was at Edinburgh, chiefly on the account of her eldest daughter, [4] then in the fourteenth year of her age, who was very ill of a consumption. She had already buried an only son, at the age of twelve; [5] and while all a mother's care and feelings were engaged by the rapid decline of a second amiable child, she was unexpectedly and suddenly bereaved of an affectionate and excellent husband. [6] Her trials were great, but the Lord had prepared her for them. She was a believer. Her faith was strong; her graces active; her conduct exemplary. She walked with God, and he supported her. And though she was a tender and sympathizing friend, she had a happy firmness of temper; so that her character as a Christian, and the propriety of her behaviour in every branch of relative life, appeared with peculiar advantage in the season of affliction. She returned to Anstruther [7] a widow, with her sick child, who languished till October, and then died. 
Though my sister had many valuable and pleasing connections in Scotland, yet her strongest tie being broken, she readily accepted my invitation to come and live with us. She was not only dear to me as Mrs Newton's sister, but we had lived long in the habits of intimate friendship. I knew her worth, and she was partial to me. She had yet one child remaining, her dear Eliza. [8] We already had a dear orphan niece, whom we had, about seven years before, adopted for our own daughter. [9] My active, fond imagination anticipated the time of her arrival, and drew a pleasing picture of the addition the company of such a sister, such a friend, would make to the happiness of our family. The children likewise – there was no great disparity between them, either in years or stature. From what I had heard of Eliza, I was prepared to love her before I saw her; though she came afterwards into my hands like an heap of untold gold, which, when counted over, proves to be a larger sum than was expected. My fancy paired and united these children; I hoped that the friendship between us and my sister would be perpetuated in them. I seemed to see them, like twin sisters, of one heart and mind, habited nearly alike, always together, always with us. Such was my plan – but the Lord's plan was very different, and therefore mine failed. It is happy for us, poor short-sighted creatures, unable as we are to foresee the consequences of our own wishes, that if we know and trust him, he often is pleased to put a merciful negative upon our purposes; and condescends to choose better for us than we can for ourselves. What might have been the issue of my plan, had it taken place, I know not; but I can now praise and adore him for the gracious issue of his. I praise his name, that I can cheerfully comply with his word, which says, ‘Be still, and know that I am God.’ [10] I not only can bow (as it becomes a creature and a sinner to do) to his sovereignty; but I admire his wisdom and goodness, and can say from my heart, ‘He has done all things well.’ [11
Pittarthie Castle
Pittarthie Castle
home of the Cunninghams
My sister had settled her affairs previously to her removal, and nothing remained but to take leave of her friends, of whom she had many, not only in Anstruther, but in different parts of the county. In February, 1783, I received a letter from her, which, before I opened it, I expected was to inform me that she was upon the road in her way to London. But the information was, that in a little journey she had made to bid a friend farewell, she had caught a violent cold, which brought on a fever and a cough, with other symptoms, which, though she described as gentle as possible, that we might not be alarmed, obliged me to give up instantly the pleasing hope of seeing her. Succeeding letters confirmed my apprehensions; her malady increased, and she was soon confined to her bed. Eliza was at school at Musselburgh. [12] Till then she had enjoyed a perfect state of health; but while her dear mother was rapidly declining, she likewise caught a great cold, and her life likewise was soon thought to be in danger. On this occasion, that fortitude and resolution which so strongly marked my sister's character, was remarkably displayed. She knew that her own race was almost finished; she earnestly desired that Eliza might live or die with us. And the physicians advised a speedy removal into the south. Accordingly, to save time, and to save Eliza from the impressions which the sight of a dying parent might probably make upon her spirits, and possibly apprehensive that the interview might make too great an impression upon her own, she sent this her only beloved child from Edinburgh directly to London, without letting her come home to take a last leave of her. She contented herself with committing and bequeathing her child to our care and love in a letter, which, I believe, was the last she was able to write.

Charles Sq
‘the house next door'
Charles Square
the Newtons lived in a house on the right,

now demolished and converted into flats
Thus powerfully recommended by the pathetic charge of a dying mother, the dearest friend we had upon earth, and by that plea for compassion which her illness might have strongly urged even upon strangers, we received our dear Eliza as a trust, and as a treasure, on the 15th of March. My sister lived long enough to have the comfort of knowing, not only that she was safely arrived, but was perfectly pleased with her new situation. She was now freed from all earthly cares. She suffered much in the remaining part of her illness, but she knew whom she believed; she possessed a peace past understanding, and a hope full of glory. She entered into the joy of her Lord on the 10th of May, 1783, respected and regretted by all who knew her. 
I soon perceived that the Lord had sent me a treasure indeed. Eliza's person was agreeable. There was an ease and elegance in her whole address, and a gracefulness in her movements, till long illness and great weakness bowed her down. Her disposition was lively, her genius quick and inventive, and if she had enjoyed health, she probably would have excelled in everything she attempted that required ingenuity. Her understanding, particularly her judgment, and her sense of propriety, were far above her years. There was something in her appearance that usually procured her favour at first sight. She was honoured by the notice of several persons of distinction, which, though I thankfully attribute in part to their kindness to me, I believe was a good deal owing to something rather uncommon in her. But her principal endearing qualities, which could be only fully known to us who lived with her, were the sweetness of her temper, and a heart formed for the exercise of affection, gratitude, and friendship. Whether, when at school, she might have heard sorrowful tales from children, who, having lost their parents, met with a great difference in point of tenderness, when they came under the direction of uncles and aunts, and might think that all uncles and aunts were alike, I know not; but I have understood since from herself, that she did not come to us with any highly raised expectations of the treatment she was to meet with. But as she found (the Lord in mercy to her and to us, having opened our hearts to receive her) that it was hardly possible for her own parents to have treated her more tenderly, and that it was from that time the business and the pleasure of our lives to study how to oblige her, and how to alleviate the afflictions which we were unable to remove; so we likewise found, that the seeds of our kindness could hardly be sown in a more promising and fruitful soil. I know not that either her aunt or I ever saw a cloud upon her countenance during the time she was with us. It is true, we did not, we could not, unnecessarily cross her; but if we thought it expedient to overrule any proposal she made, she acquiesced with a sweet smile; and we were certain we should never hear of that proposal again. Her delicacy, however, was quicker than our observation; and she would sometimes say, when we could not perceive the least reason for it, ‘I am afraid I answered you peevishly; indeed I did not intend it; if I did, I ask your pardon; I should be very ungrateful, if I thought any pleasure equal to that of endeavouring to please you.’ It is no wonder that we dearly loved such a child. 
Wonderful is the frame of the human heart. The Lord claims and deserves it all; yet there is still room for all the charities of relative life; and scope for their full play; and they are capable of yielding the sincerest pleasures this world can afford, if held in subordination to what is supremely due to him. The marriage relation, when cemented by a divine blessing, is truly a union of hearts, and the love resulting from it, we'll admit of no competition in the same kind. Children have the next claim; and whether there be one, or two, or many, each one seems to be the object of the whole of the parent's love. Perhaps my friends who have children, may think that I, who never had any, can only talk by guess upon this subject. I presume not to dispute the point with them. But, when it pleased the Lord to put my dear Betsy [13] under my care, I seemed to acquire a new set of feelings, if not exactly those of a parent, yet, as I conceive, not altogether unlike them. And I long thought it was not possible for me to love any child as I did her. But, when Eliza came, she, without being her rival, quickly participated with her in the same affection. I found I had room enough for them both, without prejudice to either. I loved the one very dearly, and the other no less than before; if it were possible, still more when I saw that she entered into my views, received and behaved to her cousin with great affection, and ascribed many little indulgences and attentions which were shown her, to their proper ground, the consideration of her ill state of health, and not to any preference that could operate to her disadvantage. For the Lord was pleased to answer my prayers in this respect so graciously, that I could not perceive that any jealousy or suspicion took place between them, on either side, from first to last.
The hectic fever, [14] cough, and sweats, which Eliza brought with her from Scotland, were subdued in the course of the summer, and there appeared no reason to apprehend that she would be taken off very suddenly. But there was a worm preying upon the root of this pretty gourd. She had seldom any severe pain, till within the last fortnight of her life, and usually slept well; but when awake she was always ill. I believe she knew not a single hour of perfect ease; and they who intimately knew her state, could not but wonder to see her so placid, cheerful, and attentive when in company, as she generally was. Many a time, when the tears have silently stolen down her cheeks, if she saw that her aunt or I observed her, she would wipe them away, come to us, with a smile and a kiss, and say, ‘Do not be uneasy, I am not very ill, I can bear it, I shall be better presently,’ or to that effect. 
Her case was thought beyond the reach of medicine, and, for a time, no medicine was used. She had air and exercise, as the weather and circumstances would permit. For the rest, she amused herself as well as she could, with her guitar or harpsichord, with her needle, and with reading. She had a part likewise, when able, in such visits as we paid or received; and our visits were generally regulated by a regard to what she could bear. Her aunt, [15] especially, seldom went abroad but at such times, and at such places, as we thought agreeable and convenient to her. For we could perceive that she loved home best, and best of all when we were at home with her.
In April, 1784, we put her under the care of my dear friend Dr Benamor. [16] To the blessing of the Lord on his skill and endeavours, I ascribe the pleasure of having her continued with us so long; nor can I sufficiently express my gratitude for his assiduous, unwearied attention, nor for his great tenderness. She is now gone, and can no more repeat what she has often spoken, of the great comfort it was to her to have so affectionate and sympathizing a physician; but while I live, I hope it will always be my pleasure to acknowledge our great obligations to him on her account. I should be ungrateful, likewise, were I to omit mentioning the kindness of Dr Allen, of Dulwich, [17] who attended her daily during her last stay at Southampton. He was so obliging likewise, as to visit her, and to meet Dr Benamor upon her case, after her return to London.  Their joint prescription was carefully followed. [18] But what can the most efficacious medicines, or the best physicians, avail to prolong life, when the hour approaches, in which the prayer of the great Intercessor must be accomplished, ‘Father, I will that they whom thou hast given me may be with me where I am, to behold my glory!’ [19] This was the proper cause of my dear Eliza's death. The Lord sent this child to me to be brought up for him; he owned my poor endeavours; and when her education was completed, and she was ripened for heaven, he took her home to himself. He has richly paid me my wages, in the employment itself, and in the happy issue.
Portswood Lodge
All that remains
of Walter Taylor’s estate
at Portswood Green
Dr Benamor advising a trial of the salt water, we passed the month of August, 1784, with her, partly at Mr Walter Taylor’s, at Southampton, [20] and partly at Charles Etty’s, Esq of Priestlands, near Lymington. [21] While she was with these kind and generous friends, she had every accommodation and assistance that could be thought of, or wished for. And the bathing was evidently useful, so far as to give some additional strength to her very weak and relaxed frame, which assisted her in going more comfortably through the last winter. We were, therefore, encouraged and advised to repeat our visit to Southampton this autumn. But the success was not the same. Her feet and legs had already begun to swell, and the evening before she set out she took cold, which brought on a return of the fever and cough; and though Dr Allen was successful in removing these symptoms in about a fortnight, and she bathed a few times, she could not persevere. However, the advantages of situation, air, and exercise, being much greater than she could have in London, and, as we were with friends whom she, as well as we, dearly loved, she continued at Southampton six weeks; but she was unable to proceed to Mr Etty’s, who was very desirous of repeating his former kindness. The Lord strengthened her to perform her journey home without inconvenience. She returned the sixteenth of September; then she entered our door for the last time, for she went out no more, till she was carried out to be put into the hearse.
Charles Etty’s house
I have thus put together, in one view, a brief account of what relates to her illness, till within the last three weeks of her pilgrimage. I now come to what is much more important and interesting. Her excellent parents had conscientiously endeavoured to bring her up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and principles of religion had been instilled into her from her infancy. Their labours were thus far attended with success, that no child could be more obedient or obliging, or more remote from evil habits or evil tempers; but I could not perceive, when she came to us, that she had any heart-affecting sense of divine things. But, being under my roof, she of course, when her health would permit, attended on my ministry, and was usually present when I prayed and expounded the Scriptures, morning and evening, in the family. Friends and ministers were likewise frequently with us, whose character and conversation were well suited to engage her notice, and to help her to form a right idea of the Christian principles and temper. Knowing that she was of a thinking turn, I left her to make her own reflections upon what she saw and heard, committing her to the Lord, from whom I had received her, and entreating him to be her effectual teacher. When I did attempt to talk with her upon the concerns of her soul, she could give me no answer but with tears. But I soon had great encouragement to hope that the Lord had both enlightened her understanding, and had drawn the desires of her heart to himself. Great was her delight in the ordinances; exemplary her attention under the preaching. To be debarred from going to hear at our stated times, was a trial, which, though she patiently bore, seemed to affect her more than any other; and she did not greatly care what she endured in the rest of the week, provided she was well enough to attend the public worship. The judicious observations she occasionally made upon what had passed in conversation, upon incidents, books, and sermons, indicated a sound Scriptural judgment, and a spiritual taste. And my hope was confirmed by her whole deportment, which was becoming the Gospel of Christ. So that had she died suddenly, on any day within about a year and a half past, I should have had no doubt that she had passed from death unto life. But I could seldom prevail with her to speak of herself: if she did, it was with the greatest diffidence and caution. 
Soon after her return from Southampton, she became acquainted with acute pain, to which she had, till then, been much a stranger. Her gentle spirit, which had borne up under a long and languishing illness, was not so capable of supporting pain. It did not occasion any improper temper or language, but it wore her away apace. Friday, the 30th of September, she was downstairs for the last time, and then she was brought down, and carried up, in arms.
It now became very desirable to hear from herself a more explicit account of the hope that was in her; especially, as, under some symptoms of an approaching mortification, she appeared to be a little alarmed, and, of course, not thoroughly reconciled to the thoughts of death. Her aunt waited for the first convenient opportunity of intimating to her the probability that the time of her departure was at hand. The next morning (Saturday, the 1st of October) presented one. She found herself remarkably better; her pains were almost gone, her spirits revived; the favourable change was visible in her countenance. Her aunt began to break the subject to her, by saying, ‘My dear, were you not extremely ill last night?’ She said, ‘Indeed I was.’  ‘Had you not been relieved, I think you could not have continued long.’  ‘I believe I could not.’  ‘My dear, I have been very anxiously concerned for your life.’  ‘But I hope, my dear aunt, you are not so now.’  She then opened her mind and spoke freely. I cannot repeat the whole; the substance was to this effect: ‘My views of things have been, for some time, very different from what they were when I came to you. I have seen and felt the vanity of childhood and youth.’  Her aunt said, ‘I believe you have long made a conscience of secret prayer.’  She answered, ‘Yes, I have long and earnestly sought the Lord with reference to the change which is now approaching. I have not yet that full assurance which is so desirable; but I have a hope, I trust a good hope; and I believe the Lord will give me whatever he sees necessary for me, before he takes me from hence. I have prayed to him to fit me for himself; and then, whether sooner or later, it signifies but little.’ Here was a comfortable point gained. We were satisfied that she had given up all expectation of living, and could speak of her departure without being distressed. 
It will not be expected that a child at her age should speak systematically. Nor had she learned her religion from a system or form of words, however sound. The Lord himself was her teacher. But from what little she had at different times said to me, I was well satisfied that she had received a true conviction of the evil of sin, and of her own state by nature as a sinner. When she spoke of the Lord, she meant the Lord Jesus Christ, the great Shepherd, who gathers such lambs in his arms and carries them in his bosom. She believed him to be God and man in one person, and that hope, of which she shall never be ashamed, was founded on his atonement, grace, and power. As I do not intend to put words into her mouth which she never spoke, I mention this, lest any person should be disappointed at not finding a certain phraseology which they may have been accustomed to.
It will not be expected that a child at her age should speak systematically. Nor had she learned her religion from a system or form of words, however sound. The Lord himself was her teacher. But, from what little she had at different times said to me, I was well satisfied that she had received a true conviction of the evil of sin, and of her own state by nature, as a sinner. When she spoke of the Lord, she meant the Lord Jesus Christ, the Great Shepherd, who gathers such lambs in his arms, and carries them in his bosom. She believed him to be God and man in one person, and that hope, of which she shall never be ashamed, was founded on his atonement, grace, and power. As I do not intend to put words into her mouth which she never spoke, I mention this, lest any persons should be disappointed at not finding a certain phraseology which they may have been accustomed to.
Her apparent revival was of short duration. In the evening of the same day, she began to complain of a sore throat, which became worse, and, before Sunday noon, threatened an absolute suffocation. When Dr Benamor, who the day before had almost entertained hopes of her recovery, found her so suddenly and greatly altered, he could not, at the moment, prevent some signs of his concern from appearing in his countenance. She quickly perceived it, and desired he would plainly tell her his sentiments.  When he had recovered himself, he said, ‘You are not so well as when I saw you on Saturday.’ She answered, that she trusted all would be well soon. He replied, that, whether she lived or died, it would be well, and to the glory of God. He told me that he had much pleasing conversation with her that morning; some particulars of which he had committed to writing, but he lost the paper. From that time she may be said to have been dying, as we expected her departure from one hour to another. 
On Monday, the 3rd, she was almost free from any complaint in her throat; but there was again an appearance of a mortification in her legs, which was again repelled by the means which Dr Benamor prescribed. I recollect but little of the incidents of this day. In general she was in great pain, sometimes in agonies, unable to remain many minutes in the same position. But her mind was peaceful; she possessed a spirit of recollection and prayer; and her chief attention to earthly things seemed confined to the concern she saw in those who were around her. That she might not increase their feelings for her, she strove to conceal the sense of her own sufferings. It pleased the Lord wonderfully to support my dear Mrs Newton, and she had a tolerable night's rest, though I did not expect the child would live till morning. On Tuesday, the 4th, about nine in the morning, we all thought her dying, and waited near two hours by her bed-side for her last breath. She was much convulsed and in great agonies. I said, ‘My dear, you are going to heaven, and I hope, by the grace of God, we, in due time, shall follow you.’ She could not speak, but let us know that she attended to what I said by a gentle nod of her head, and a sweet smile. I repeated to her many passages of Scripture, and verses of hymns, to each of which she made the same kind of answer. Though silent, her looks were more expressive than words. Towards eleven o'clock, a great quantity of coagulated phlegm, which she had not strength to bring up, made her rattle violently in the throat, which we considered as a sign that death was at hand; and as she seemed unwilling to take something that was offered her, we were loth to disturb her in her last moments (as we supposed,) by pressing her. I think she must have died in a quarter of an hour, had not Dr Benamor just then come into the room. He felt her pulse, and observed, that she was not near death by her pulse, and desired something might be given her. She was perfectly sensible, though still unable to speak, but expressed her unwillingness to take any thing, by very strong efforts. However, she yielded to entreaty, and a tea-spoonful or two of some liquid soon cleared the passage, and she revived. Her pain, however, was extreme, and her disappointment great. I never saw her so near impatience as upon this occasion. As soon as she could speak she cried, ‘O cruel, cruel, to recall me, when I was so happy, and so near gone! I wish you had not come; I long to go home.’ But in a few minutes she grew composed, assented to what the doctor said of her duty to wait the Lord's time; and from that hour, though her desires to depart, and to be with her Saviour, were stronger and stronger, she cheerfully took whatever was offered her, and frequently asked for something of her own accord. 
How often, if we were to have our choice, should we counteract our own prayers! I had entreated the Lord to prolong her life, till she could leave an indisputable testimony behind her for our comfort; yet, when I saw her agony, and heard her say, ‘O how cruel to stop me!’ I was, for a moment, almost of her mind, and could hardly help wishing that the doctor had delayed his visit a little longer. But if she had died then, we should have been deprived of what we saw and heard the two following days, the remembrance of which is now much more precious to me than silver or gold. 
When the doctor came on Wednesday, she entreated him to tell her how long he thought she might live. He said, ‘Are you in earnest, my dear?’ She answered, Indeed I am.’ At that time there were great appearances that a mortification was actually begun. He therefore told her, he thought it possible she might hold out till eight in the evening, but did not expect she could survive midnight at farthest. On hearing him say so, low as she was, her eyes seemed to sparkle with their former vivacity, and fixing them on him with an air of ineffable satisfaction, she said, ‘Oh, that is good news indeed.’ And she repeated it as such to a person who came soon after into the room, and said, with lively emotions of joy, ‘The doctor tells me I shall stay here but a few hours more.’ In the afternoon she noticed and counted the clock, I believe, every time it struck, and, when it struck seven, she said, ‘Another hour, and then. But it pleased the Lord to spare her to us another day.
She suffered much in the course of Wednesday night, and was quite resigned and patient. Our kind servants, who, from their love to her and to us, watched her day and night with a solicitude and tenderness which wealth is too poor to purchase, were the only witnesses of the affectionate and grateful manner in which she repeatedly thanked them for their services and attention to her. Though such an acknowledgment was no more than their due, yet coming from herself, and at such a time, they highly valued it. She added her earnest prayers that the Lord would reward them. To her prayers my heart says, Amen. May they be comforted of the Lord in their dying hours as she was, and meet with equal kindness from those about them! 
I was surprised on Thursday morning to find her not only alive, but, in some respects, better. The tokens of mortification again disappeared. This was her last day, and it was a memorable day to us. When Dr Benamor asked her how she was, she answered, ‘Truly happy; and, if this be dying, it is a pleasant thing to die.’ (the very expression which a dear friend of mine used upon her death-bed a few years ago.) [22] She said to me, about ten o'clock, ‘My dear uncle, I would not change conditions with any person upon earth. O how gracious is the Lord to me! Oh, what a change is before me!’ She was several times asked, if she could wish to live, provided the Lord would restore her to perfect health? Her answer was, ‘Not for all the world,’ and sometimes, ‘Not for a thousand worlds. [23] Do not weep for me, my dear aunt; but rather rejoice and praise on my account. I shall now have the advantage of dear Miss Patty Barham (for whom she had a very tender affection, and who had been long in a languishing state), for I shall go before her.’ We asked her if she would choose a text for her own funeral sermon? She readily mentioned, ‘Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth.’ [24] ‘That,’ said she, ‘has been my experience; my afflictions have been many, but not too many; nor has the greatest of them been too great; I praise him for them all.’ But, after a pause, she said, ‘Stay, I think there is another text which may do better; let it be, 'Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord.' [25] That is my experience now.’ She likewise chose a hymn to be sung after the sermon. Olney Hymns, Book 2, Hymn 72:
In vain my fancy strives to paint
The moment after death;
The glories that surround a saint
When yielding up his breath.
  This much (and this is all) we know, 
Saints are completely blest;
Have done with sin, and care, and wo, 
And with their Saviour rest:
On harps of gold they praise his name, 
His face they always view;
Then let us followers be of them, 
That we may praise him too.
One gentle sigh his fetters breaks,
We scarce can say, ' He's gone!' 
Before the willing spirit takes
Its mansion near the throne. 
Faith strives, but all its efforts fail 
To trace the spirit's flight;
No eye can pierce within the vail 
Which hides the world of light.
But I must check myself, and set down but a small part of the gracious words which the Lord enabled her to speak in the course of the day, though she was frequently interrupted by pains and agonies.  She had something to say, either in the way of admonition, or consolation, as she thought most suitable, to every one whom she saw. To her most constant attendant she said, ‘Be sure you continue to call on the Lord; and if you think he does not hear you now, he will at last, as he has heard me.’ She spoke a great deal to an intimate friend, who was with her every day, which I hope she will long remember, as the testimony of her dying Eliza. Among other things, she said, ‘See how comfortable the Lord can make a dying bed! Do you think that you shall have such an assurance when you come to die?’ Being answered, ‘I hope so, my dear,’ she replied, ‘But do you earnestly, and with all your heart, pray to the Lord for it? If you seek him, you shall surely find him.’ She then prayed affectionately and fervently for her friend, afterwards for her cousin, and then for another of our family who was present. Her prayer was not long, but every word was weighty, and her manner very affecting; the purport was, that they might all be taught and comforted by the Lord. About five in the afternoon she desired me to pray with her once more. Surely I then prayed from my heart. When I had finished, she said, ‘Amen.’ I said, ‘My dear child, have I expressed your meaning?’ She answered, ‘O yes!’ and then added, ‘I am ready to say, Why are his chariot wheels so long in coming? [26] But I hope he will enable me to wait his hour with patience.’ These were the last words I heard her speak.

Mrs Newton's heart was much, perhaps too much, attached to this dear child; which is not to be wondered at, considering what a child she was, and how long and how much she had suffered. But the Lord graciously supported her in this trying season. Indeed, there was much more cause for joy than for grief; yet the pain of separation will be felt. Eliza well knew her feelings, and a concern for her was, I believe, the last anxiety that remained with her. She said to those about her, ‘Try to persuade my aunt to leave the room; I think I shall soon go to sleep, I shall not remain with you till the morning. Her aunt, however, was the last person who heard her speak, and was sitting by her bed when she went away. A little past six, hearing that a relation who dearly loved her, and was beloved by her, and who had come daily from Westminster to see her, was below stairs, she said, ‘Raise me up, that I may speak to him once more.’ Her aunt said, ‘My dear, you are nearly exhausted, I think you had better not attempt it.’ She smiled, and said, ‘It is very well, I will not.’ She was then within half an hour of her translation to glory; but the love of her dear Lord had so filled her with benevolence, that she was ready to exert herself to her last breath, in hopes of saying something that might be useful to others after she was gone. 
Towards seven o'clock I was walking in the garden, and earnestly engaged in prayer for her, when a servant came to me and said, ‘She is gone.’ O Lord, how great is thy power! How great is thy goodness! A few days before, had it been practicable and lawful, what would I not have given to procure her recovery? Yet seldom in my life have I known a more heartfelt joy than when these words, She is gone, sounded in my ears. I ran upstairs, and our whole little family were soon around her bed. Though her aunt and another person were sitting with their eyes fixed upon her, she was gone, perhaps a few minutes before she was missed. She lay upon her left side, with her cheek gently reclining upon her hand, as if in a sweet sleep. And I thought there was a smile on her countenance. Never, surely, did death appear in a more beautiful, inviting form. We fell upon our knees, and I returned (I think I may say) my most unfeigned thanks to our God and Saviour, for his abundant goodness to her, crowned in this last instance by giving her so gentle a dismission. Yes, I am satisfied, I am comforted. And if one of the many involuntary tears I have shed could have recalled her to life, to health, to an assemblage of all that this world could contribute to her happiness, I would have laboured hard to suppress it. Now my largest desires for her are accomplished. The days of her mourning are ended. She is landed on that peaceful shore, where the storms of trouble never blow. She is, for ever, out of the reach of sorrow, sin, temptation, and snares. Now is she before the throne! She sees him whom, not having seen, she loved; she drinks of the rivers of pleasure which are at his right hand, and shall thirst no more. 
She was born at St Margaret’s, Rochester, February 6, 1771.
Her parents settled at Anstruther, in Fife, in 1773.
She returned to us – March 15, 1783.
She breathed her spirit into her Redeemer's hands a little before seven in the evening, on October 6, 1785, aged fourteen years and eight months.  
I shall be glad if this little narrative may prove an encouragement to my friends who have children. May we not conceive the Lord saying to us, as Pharaoh's daughter said to the mother of Moses, ‘Take this child, and bring it up for me, and I will pay thee thy wages'? [27] How solemn the trust! How important and difficult the charge of it! But how rich the reward, if our endeavours are crowned with success! And we have everything to hope from his power and goodness, if, in dependence upon his blessing, we can fully and diligently aim at fulfilling his will. Happy they, who will say at the last day, ‘Behold, here am I, and the children which thou hast given me!’ [28]
The children of my friends will likewise see my narrative. May it convince them that it is practicable, and good, to seek the Lord betimes! My dear Eliza's state of languor prevented her from associating with young people of her own age, so frequently and freely as she might otherwise have done. But these papers will come into the hands of some such, whom she knew, and whom she loved. To them, I particularly recommend and dedicate this relation. O my dear young friends, had you seen with what dignity of spirit she filled up the last scene of her life, you must have been affected by it! Let not the liveliness of your spirits, and the gaiety of the prospect around you, prevent you from considering, that, to you likewise days will certainly come (unless you are suddenly snatched out of life), when you will say and feel, that the world, and all in it, can afford you no pleasure. But there is a Saviour, and a Mighty One, always near, always gracious to those who seek him. May you, like her, be enabled to choose him, as the Guide of your youth, and the Lord of your hearts. Then, like her, you will find support and comfort under affliction, wisdom to direct your conduct, a good hope in death, and by death a happy translation to everlasting life.
I have only to add my prayers, that a blessing from on high may descend upon the persons and families of all my friends, and upon all into whose hands this paper may providentially come. 
Charles’s Square, Hoxton
October 13, 1785

Further Comments:

John Bacon (1777–1859)
On 3 October 1785, soon after the family’s return from Southampton, and Eliza’s health was declining rapidly, Newton wrote to fellow-eclectic John Bacon (sculptor):
‘My dear friend, we waited nearly two hours yesterday morning by sweet Eliza's bedside, expecting to see her draw her last breath. Her face was often convulsed, and she could only answer us by a little nod, but she revived again and is still living, suffers much, but is composed. I trust the Lord smiles upon her, for she may be said to smile upon death. A teaspoonful of something yesterday relieved her in her agonies, but she seemed disappointed, and said — O! It was cruel to recall me when I was so happy and just gone. But in a few minutes she grew calm. Dr Benamor thought she might live two or three days longer; but the change cannot be far off.
My Dear is mercifully and wonderfully supported; but you may guess our feelings are painful; but I am satisfied and would be thankful and when this parting twitch is over I shall hope to rejoice. The Lord sent her to us to bring up for him. Her education is now nearly finished, and he is about to take home; and I acknowledge he has paid me good wages. Her company has been exceedingly pleasant, and I am honoured and happy in this issue. Blessed be his name, how much more so than if she was in perfect health and disposed to swim down the stream of dissipation, with the thoughtless throng. You will pray for us, and especially that my dear Betsy may profit by this affecting scene that is brought so directly before her eyes. I in return will pray that all your children, from the oldest to the youngest, may know and love their Redeemer before the evil days come. That they may notice in Eliza the possibility of the sun of life going down at noon; and may so number their days as to apply their hearts to the true wisdom.’
William Cowper (1731-1800)
William Cowper sent his sympathies to the Newtons on 16 October 1785:
‘My dear Friend, To have sent a child to heaven is a great honour and a great blessing, and your feelings on such an occasion may well be such as render you rather an object of congratulation than of condolence. An escape from a life of suffering to a life of happiness and glory is such a deliverance as leaves no room for the sorrow of survivors, unless they sorrow for themselves. We cannot, indeed, lose what we love without regretting it; but a Christian is in possession of such alleviations of that regret as the world knows nothing of. One of the first thoughts that your account of Miss Cuningham's dying moments and departure suggested to me had self for its object. It struck me that she was not born when I sank into darkness, and that she is gone to heaven before I have emerged again. Your history of your happy niece is just what it should be, clear, affectionate, and plain; worthy of her, and worthy of yourself. How much more beneficial to the world might such a memorial of an unknown, but pious and believing child eventually prove, would the supercilious learned condescend to read it, than the history of all the kings and heroes that ever lived! … I had rather have been your niece, or the writer of her story, than any Caesar that ever thundered.
William Bull (1738-1814)
Newton’s first publication of this memorial to Eliza was a small, private run intended only for friends and family, as he explained to William Bull on 19 October 1785, less than a fortnight after Eliza’s death:
‘The translation of our sweet Eliza was so comfortable, so glorious, that I thought it my duty to record it in writing; and my mind soon prompted me to print it, that I might the more easily inform my friends. At that time my heartwas so soft, and my feelings so strong, that I could not trust myself to write a narrative for the public inspection. But when we are talking by the fireside with an intimate friend in whom we can confide, we can indulge ourselves in a thousand little sensibilities, and, what other people would call, weaknesses, which we should not choose to utter, if we were to speak with an audible voice upon the Royal Exchange. Therefore I have written and printed only for my friends. Not one will be published or sold. A copy will come to you in due time. I wrote from my feelings, and almost dropped a tear for every word. But I would not have you think there was one sorrowful tear among them. That would have been foolish and ungrateful indeed. Blessed be the Lord, I can hardly name one of the many merciful dispensations with which he has favoured me in the course of my life, which my heart is more satisfied with, or which calls more loudly upon my gratitude, than this last. A trial it doubtless was, to part with such a child; but I have not been permitted for a moment to wish it had been otherwise.
‘We thank you for your sympathy and prayers. We buried dear Eliza on Wednesday evening last; and I preached her funeral sermon on Sunday evening. The church was crammed. The text she chose for herself, Revelation 14:13. [29] I was a good deal affected, but was enabled to restrain my emotions so far, that I was composed and master of my thoughts, and discovered no more to the audience than was suited to impress them likewise. I think I was favoured with liberty, and have reason to hope it was a good time.’
Sarah Taylor (1743-1818)
On 28 October 1785 Newton sent the news of Eliza’s death to Mrs Taylor (née Andrews), with whom they had stayed in Southampton just a few weeks earlier: ‘Yes, madam, the Lord has done great things for us since we came home. He sent a chariot of love for dear Eliza. We almost saw her mount. Surely she was in heaven, and heaven in her, before she left the earth. The manner of her dismission had a merciful effect upon us, so that, though it was in one view like pulling off a limb, yet upon the whole we felt that praises were much more suitable for us than complaints. I still weep for her more or less every day, but I thank the Lord, I have not dropped one tear of sorrow. My dear likewise has been wonderfully supported.’
William Wilberforce (1759-1833)
In January 1786, William Wilberforce drove John Newton back to his home in Wimbledon in a chaise after church. Newton dined and slept there. Wilberforce recorded in his diary:  ‘He read the account of his poor niece’s death, and shed tears of joy.’

[1] Eliza (Elizabeth) Cuningham (1771-1785) was John Newton’s niece, the daughter of his wife’s sister Elizabeth Cuningham, née Catlett (1730-1783). The 1808 edition of Newton's Works carries a footnote for Eliza: 'The last surviving child of Mr James Cunningham of Pittarthie, Fifeshire'.
[2] William Kingsbury (1744-1818), pastor of Above Bar Independent in Southampton, which Newton attended frequently on his trips to stay with the Taylors of Portswood Green, persuaded Newton to publish more widely, suggesting that he could assign the profits to charity. Kingsbury was the son-in-law of Walter Taylor.
[3] Elizabeth (Eliza) Cuningham (née Catlett, 1730-1783), Newton’s sister-in-law, who married James Cuningham at St Mary’s, Chatham, on 5 March 1764. See Letters to Elizabeth Cuningham.
[4] Susan (Sukey, Susie) Cuningham (1768-1782). See extract of Letter re Susie Cuningham.
[5] John (Jack) Cuningham (1765-1777), who had a severe foot injury. See Some Account of John Cuningham, by his mother.
[6] James Cuningham (c1723-1782), shipwright. See Letters to James Cuningham.
[7] The Cuninghams were then living at Pittarthie Castle, a family heritage, near Anstruther, Fife, Scotland.
[8] Eliza (Elizabeth) Cuningham (1771-1785).
[9] Betsy (Elizabeth) Catlett, later Smith (1769-1834), daughter of Polly and Elizabeth’s brother George (1742-1774) and Sarah Catlett, née Kite (1739-1773).
[10] Psalm 46:10 Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth.
[11] Mark 7:37 And were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well: he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.
[12] Boarding Schools in a Musselburgh Directory for 1795: Miss Grant (Links); Miss Neilson (west end); Miss Primrose (west end).
[13] Betsy Catlett, qv
[14] A hectic fever is a fluctuating but persistent characteristic of the advanced stage of ‘consumption’ – pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).
[15] her aunt’ refers to Mary (Polly) Newton (née Catlett, 1730-1790).
[16] Dr James Benamor (c.1742-1814) of Milman Place, Bedford Row – ‘a godly man, who mixes prayer with all his management’ – husband of Sophia (née Treadway), father of James Haym Benamor (1768-1796), who was briefly Newton’s curate at St Mary Woolnoth (essentially for only a fortnight before he became ill with ‘an inflammation in his lungs, which had caused a great haemorrhage’ resulting in his death).
[17] Dr Joseph Allen (1714-1796) of Dulwich, accompanied Commodore George Anson on his circumnavigation of the globe and was subsequently Master of the College of God's Gift in Dulwich 1746-1775. He resigned in order to marry. Munk’s Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London states regarding Allen: ‘His conduct in public and private life was most exemplary; he was charitable, just and liberal, full of information, friendship, and benevolence; and by his will, dated 12th November, 1793, bequeathed £500 to the Asylum; £500 to the Lying-in hospital, and £200 to the vicar and churchwardens of Camberwell, the interest on which was to be laid out in coals and distributed annually among the poor housekeepers of Dulwich for ever.’
[18] Young William Herbert Wilderspin (1772-1851), records in his journal how he used to be sent by the Newtons to fetch medicine from the apothecary. ‘Billy’ writes: ‘After my father's death [in 1781] I was taken into the family of the Revd John Newton. To this providential early patronage I owe much of my succeeding good fortune in life.’ Dropping his surname, ‘William Herbert’ became a First Librarian of the Guildhall. He wrote History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London (1836–7). Samuel Wilderspin, a pioneer in infant education, was the son of William’s older half-brother Alexander.
[19] John 17:24 Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.
[20] Walter Taylor (1734–1803), marine engineer, nicknamed ‘one of Nelson’s Boffins’ for his numerous inventions, which included the circular saw, efficient ships’ pumps, copper carronades to protect ships’ hulls from barnacles and cannon balls. At his Wood Mill on the River Itchen, a little north of his home in Portswood Green, he made ships’ blocks from lignum vitae and persuaded the Royal Navy to use them, offering a seven year guarantee (ordinary wooden blocks cracked after three months, obliging the sailors to keep carving replacements). Taylor’s  inventions helped jack up the navy in time for the Battle of Trafalgar, which was master-minded by his friend Sir Charles Middleton (1726-1813) – later First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Barham – whom Taylor introduced to Newton. Their friendship led to joint ventures in pioneer missionary work in India and Australia. Newton felt that Portswood Green, just outside Southampton, was his second home. A selection of his letters to them was published in The Aged Pilgrim’s Triumph over Sin and the Grave, 1825. Taylor also owned a town house at 10 St George’s Row, Hyde Park.
[21] Charles Etty (d, 1797) had been a believer for many years, ‘but could never make an acquaintance to whom he could freely open his mind before I came to him’. Newton wrote his first ‘quarterly’ to William Wilberforce (1759-1833) from the ‘hermitage’ in Etty’s garden. He wrote a poem: Fruit gathered from a chestnut tree, at Priestlands. Etty’s house is now part of Priestlands School in Pennington. Public footpaths pass through the northern side of the property. William Gilpin (1724-1804), vicar of Boldre (and first President of the Watercolour Society, who coined the word ‘picturesque’) claimed that the most beautiful local view was ‘from Mr Etty’s drawing-room at Priestlands. The near grounds sink in the middle into a sort of wide valley, which is occupied in the distance by the Island [the Isle of Wight] and the channel. The whole has the appearance of a grand lake. It appears as if the house and view had been adapted to each other, which is one of the happiest circumstances that can attend a situation.’ Gilpin’s curate at Boldre was Richard Johnson (1755–1827), whom Newton encouraged to embark as Chaplain to the First Fleet of convicts, warmly supporting his foundational ministry of establishing Christianity in Australia through his compassionate and wise letters.
[22] This friend may perhaps have been Dorothy Foster-Barham (1721-1781), the wife of Newton’s great friend Joseph (1729-1789) in Bedford. The Newtons often stayed with this Moravian family and attended chapel with them. Following a visit to them in 1781, prompted by Dorothy’s illness, he wrote to Jane Flower (1760-1826): ‘Our pleasure at Bedford was like some strains of music in a flat key and a plaintive style. It was mournfully sweet. Mrs Barham is one of the most amiable and most spiritual women I know … her whole deportment was so calm, cheerful and heavenly, that if an angel could be sick, I might compare her to a sick angel.’ A few months later he wrote to William Bull (1738-1814): “Yes, dear Mrs Barham is gone home. She lived honourably and died peaceably. Were I to preach a funeral sermon, I should say but little about her; but I would make the people stare, if I could, by telling them what a wonderful Friend she had; one who paid all her debts, and was so attentive to her that his eye was never off her by night or day for a long number of years; one who, by looking at her, could sweeten her pains, renew her strength, and fill her with wisdom, grace and peace. She is gone to see her best Friend; and I hope, one day to see her with him.’
[23] [Newton’s footnote:] The last time she was asked this question, she said (as I have been since informed), ‘I desire to have no choice.’
[24] Hebrews 12:6 For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.
[25] Revelation 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.
[26] 2 Kings 2:2,4,6,11 And Elijah said unto Elisha, Tarry here, I pray thee; for the Lord hath sent me to Bethel… And Elijah said unto him, Elisha, tarry here, I pray thee; for the Lord hath sent me to Jericho… And Elijah said unto him, Tarry, I pray thee, here; for the Lord hath sent me to Jordan… And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.
[27] Exodus 2:9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the women took the child, and nursed it.
[28] Isaiah 8:18 Behold, I and the children whom the Lord hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion.
[29] Revelation 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

Simon Ford
Priestlands School